RSS

Category Archives: 1970s

A Ghost Story for Christmas: The Ash Tree (1975)

Broadcast as a “Ghost Story for Christmas” in 1975, The Ash Tree was the BBC’s last adaptation of the work of M.R. James for three decades, and also their most adventurous—indeed, it bears the stamp of the scriptwriter almost as prominently as its original author. The scriptwriter in question was David Rudkin, a widely acclaimed dramatist in his own right, and one of the BBC’s most distinctive talents in the 1970s, best known for his visionary Play for Today, Penda’s Fen. Broadcast the preceding year, it is a profoundly strange, fiercely intelligent and palpably pagan work—qualities which Rudkin also brings to The Ash Tree. The result is the most challenging adaptation of James’ work, and one which divides audiences; Rudkin certainly offers no quarter to the viewer, but for those beguiled by his unique aesthetic, it ranks as one of the strongest entries in the Ghost Story for Christmas strand.

The Ash Tree is widely regarded as one of M.R. James’ finest works, in terms of both literary technique and the atmosphere of horror the story invokes. It is thus merciful that Rudkin’s script does not take too many liberties with The Ash Tree’s basic plot; rather, like Jonathan Miller’s 1968 adaptation of Whistle & I’ll Come to You, it draws out certain psychological and sociological themes which were absent in the original text. Thus, in the 18th Century, Sir Richard Castringham inherits a country seat which he sets out to improve; he soon finds himself plagued by an ash tree outside his bedroom window, and inexorably succumbs to the curse placed on the family by Mrs. Mothersole, whom his ancestor, Sir Matthew, had condemned to death for witchcraft a few generations earlier. Although this tale represented a mere “pleasing terror” for James, in Rudkin’s hands it attempts to stand as a damning indictment of patriarchal oppression in the early modern period.

Rudkin’s principal innovation is to transmute the image of Mrs. Mothersole from the stereotypical crone implied by James into an independent young woman who catches the eye of the repressed Sir Matthew Castringham, thereby casting her subsequent persecution as a manifestation of the authorities’ fear of liberated female sexuality. In this respect, the adaptation strongly resembles Michael Reeves’ classic film, Witchfinder General, released several years earlier in 1968. However, whilst that film is an exclusively human tragedy, in which the women tormented by Matthew Hopkins are innocent victims, The Ash Tree confuses the matter by imputing genuinely magical powers to Mrs. Mothersole. Although her activities are initially confined to innocent herbalism and shape-shfting, she resorts to maleficium in extremis and the resulting manifestations at the climax represent something truly corrupt. As such the conclusion almost feels like an anti-Enlightenment manifesto.

Equally distinctive is the script’s elision of the two time periods—Sir Richard in “the present”; Sir Matthew in “flashback”—which emphasises the immanence of history, whilst invoking an oneiric and sometimes elliptical atmosphere. The two Castringhams are so closely identified with each other that viewers unfamiliar with the original story may find the narrative’s protean chronology somewhat confusing, especially as Edward Petherbridge plays both roles. As such, Petherbridge acts as the lynch-pin of the drama, and like Peter Vaughan and Michael Bryant before him, he portrays James’ haunted protagonist with appropriate intensity, ably delineating the dual protagonists’ ambiguities. Indeed, his enactment of Sir Matthew’s psychological struggle between faith, rationalism and lust transforms the squire from a moral coward into something resembling sympathetic character.

The British landscape is also a significant player in the drama. Although the original story was set in Suffolk (like many of James’ tales), Clark relocates it to Cornwall, where the wild moors and desolate outcrops provide an elemental backdrop to the action—exquisitely photographed by Lawrence Gordon Clark. The brutality of 17th Century society reflects the brutality of the environment, whilst emphasising the atavistic “pagan” current with which many writers have associated historical witchcraft and to which Rudkin was no stranger. Such ideas, have long been discredited amongst scholars; however, the “witch cult” hypothesis continues to inspire the creative imagination—especially attempts to evoke the “folk horror” aesthetic which pervades this production. With interest in that sub-genre burgeoning, Rudkin’s adaptation surely stands as ones of its foundational texts in the televisual medium and displays many of the idiom’s strengths, alongside its attendant confusions.

Produced by BBC Television : originally transmitted on 23rd December 1975

Advertisements
 

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

A Ghost Story for Christmas: The Treasure of Abbot Thomas (1974)

Whilst it is relatively popular amongst readers of M.R. James, I have to confess that ‘The Treasure of Abbot Thomas’ has never been favourite of mine. The details of the treasure hunting always struck me as rather dry and repetitive, causing it to seem like a rare case of James allowing his scholarship to overburden the narrative. That it proves one of the most successful of the BBC’s adaptations came as something of a surprise and whilst not quite in the same league as ‘A Warning to the Curious,’ it is a thoroughly absorbing and unnerving production. It is also, after ‘The Ash Tree,’ the most liberally adapted, grafting on an extra protagonist in the form of Lord Peter Dattering to act as a collaborator with the Rev. Somerton (thereby more easily allowing exposition) and a domestic sub-plot concerning the Dattering family.

Thankfully these additions do not detract from the integrity of the story. Indeed they positively enhance it. Quite aside from providing sufficient material to ensure that the pace does not drag (an occasional failure of the Ghost Story for Christmas series), it provides for a wonderful prelude in which Dattering’s mother attempts to contact her late husband through a fraudulent seance, quickly debunked by Somerton. This scene both foreshadows the genuine supernatural phenomena to come and establishes the hubristic rationality of the protagonist. Michael Bryant excels here and continues to impress as the tale progresses, adeptly portraying the conflict of a man torn between academic propriety and naked greed. Following his equally strong turn in ‘The Stone Tape’ we must consider Bryant a veteran in the ranks of the haunted.

Equally satisfying is the fact that the treasure hunting aspect seems to work far better in the visual medium, although this is possibly because it gives Lawrence Gordon Clark ample opportunity to let his camera linger over some exquisite church architecture. This ecclesiastical context allows for the deployment of much archetypally chilling imagery including gargoyles and half-glimpsed cowled figures. The soundtrack also reflects it, occasionally augmenting its percussive emphasis with monastic chorale and disembodied Latin whispers. These techniques may be familiar but their efficacy cannot be denied. Meanwhile, the climactic supernatural manifestation is of a particularly Lovecraftian character and Clark conveys its horror well, assisted by the judicious use of a slug!

However, perhaps the strongest asset of the production is its final shot, the ambiguity and terrible implications of which linger long in the mind. It does full justice to James’s assertion that the spirits in a successful supernatural tale must be implacably malevolent and in its uncomfortable lack of resolution, leaves the viewers themselves haunted. It is its faithfulness to James’s intentions, despite the additions to the plot, which really distinguishes ‘The Treasure of Abbot Thomas.’ For whilst there are other strong adaptations, their success sometimes derives from their own merits (e.g. Jonathan Miller’s ‘Whistle & I’ll Come To You’) and I feel that only the preceding year’s adaptation of ‘A Warning to the Curious’ is quite as effective at capturing the full atmosphere of James’s work.

Originally transmitted on 23rd December 1974
Produced by BBC 2

 

Tags: , , , ,

Casting the Runes (1979)

‘Casting the Runes’ is widely regarded as one of M.R. James’s most memorable tales (it achieved second place in a poll of members of ‘Ghosts & Scholars,’ the M.R. James society) and as such, it’s hardly surprising that it has been brought to screen on two occasions, firstly as Jacques Tourneur’s acclaimed 1957 black and white film, ‘Night of the Demon’ and subsequently in this rather more humble television production dating from 1979. It is often erroneously recalled as part of the BBC’s ‘A Ghost Story for Christmas’ strand as it shares the same director, the redoubtable Lawrence Gordon Clark. However, it was actually transmitted by ITV much later in the decade and despite the presence of Clark behind the camera, it’s somewhat less effective than any of his earlier James adaptations.

It is particularly hampered by that scourge of so much 1970s television drama on a tight budget (and inspiration for a fine Monty Python sketch), the uneven contrast between the use of film for location work and video in the studio. The Ghost Stories for Christmas, on the other hand, were shot entirely on film. So whilst Clark’s photography is typically rich and atmospheric for the wintry exterior scenes here, it’s frequently compromised by the flat, over-lit interiors. The production also suffers from being given a contemporary setting. Divorced from the context of Edwardian academia, the ambience of which so suffuses James’s work, much of the dread and isolation seems to evaporate, whilst Clark’s camera is given far less detail to linger over.

The updated narrative is something this adaptation has in common with ‘Night of the Demon’ and it’s impossible not to compare the two. Certainly the film is more successful, exuding a potent sense of paranoia and tension largely absent here. Fortunately the television production is not entirely lacking in terror. The opening scene is particularly effective, expertly directed by Clark who unlike Tourneur does not reveal too much of the threat. Equally, the scene in which Dutton discovers Karswell’s warning mysteriously manifested in the frames of her film is an eerie moment, with Jan Francis making a far more sympathetic protagonist than Dana Andrews. Meanwhile, Iain Cuthbertson does a fine job of matching Niall MacGinnis’s memorable performance as Karswell, despite the bizarre American accent.

More problematically, the production seems to compare itself to ‘Night of the Demon,’ apparently purposefully avoiding an attempt to compete with one of the film’s defining moments, the suspenseful climax in the train carriage when the runes are finally passed back to Karswell. Indeed, the conclusion here is so perfunctorily handled that the entire story feels decapitated and denied an effective pay-off, its earlier shortcomings remain in focus. ‘Casting the Runes’ ultimately comes across as a flawed effort, not without its moments, but lacking the atmosphere of Clark’s earlier productions for the BBC. Whilst we can be thankful for Tourneur’s film, it still seems a shame that a director so sympathetic to James’s vision as Clark was unable to do full justice to one of the writer’s most characteristic works.

Originally transmitted on 24th April 1979
Produced by Yorkshire Television

 

Tags: , , , , ,

Mr. Humphreys & His Inheritance (1976)

I have to confess that I’ve never regarded ‘Mr. Humphreys & His Inheritance’ as amongst the most substantial works in the M.R. James canon. It certainly comes as no surprise to discover that it was only written to fill up his second volume, the imaginatively titled ‘More Ghost Stories of an Antiquary’ (1911). Essentially, this is a Jamesian ghost story by numbers, despite the pleasing motif of the maze (the inheritance of the title). Indeed, the fundamental problem with the story is that the maze qua maze is largely incidental to the narrative. Despite James’s credentials as an antiquarian, little is made of the symbolism and mythology of the labyrinth and we are left with scarcely more than standard James plot built around some rather arbitrary motifs.

Thus it is a surprise that anybody thought the story worth adapting. Or rather it would be were it not rather a peculiar dramatisation, designed not as a work in its own right but as a means to demonstrate the use of incidental music for dramatic effect in television, complete with an introduction from the composer himself. This is rather ironic when you consider that one of the defining aspects of the Ghost Story for Christmas adaptations, for example, is the very sparseness of their scores. Silence, and sudden eruptions out of it, are far more effective tools in the evocation of the supernatural. There are certainly numerous points here where these techniques would have been far more successful in creating ‘dramatic effect’ than all those oboes and clarinets constantly burbling away in counterpoint.

As the adaptation was produced only to serve this educational purpose, it is a mere twenty minutes long and I doubt the story could’ve sustained much longer. The direction is surprisingly effective considering the presumable production limitations. There are a number of atmospheric shots of the maze itself and some serviceable animation at the rather abrupt climax. However, there is little of the tension so essential to such an adaptation and doubtless this would have been greatly limited by its status as a schools programme. The two lead performances, from actors unlikely to prompt recognition even in 1976, are functional but not especially distinguished. Nobody here achieves the same haunted dread so potently conveyed by Denholm Elliot in ‘The Signalman’ or Peter Vaughan in ‘A Warning to the Curious.’

Ultimately, it’s difficult to know in what regard to hold this adaptation. On one hand, it’s pleasing that such an obscure work has been afforded a measure of immortality on screen. Yet conversely, it is impossible to deny that it’s far from the most chilling of James’s stories in the first place and that the constraints of the production could not help but contribute to creating a predominantly bloodless affair. Notorious obscuritan that I am, I’m inevitably predisposed towards the former perspective but there is still a substantial difference between being glad that I have something on my shelf and feeling the desire to view it again. Undoubtedly its brevity helps in that respect but it is never going to transcend its status of minor curiosity as opposed to buried treasure.

Originally transmitted on 21st June 1976
Produced by Yorkshire Television for ITV Schools

 

Tags: , , ,

The Rivals of Sherlock Holmes: The Horse of the Invisible (1971)

Produced by Thames in the early Seventies, each individual episode of ‘The Rivals of Sherlock Holmes’ showcased one of the less celebrated fictional detectives of the late Victorian and Edwardian era and whilst the series was primarily composed of mysteries of a corporeal nature, it was perhaps inevitable that it should include one of the more interesting examples of that milieu, William Hope Hodgson’s psychic investigator, Thomas Carnacki. The title of the series suggests that the emphasis was on the sleuths themselves and indeed, a number of celebrated names filled the central roles, including Robert Stephens, Derek Jacobi and Charles Gray. Here, in something of a premonition of his association with John Carpenter, we are treated to Donald Pleasance’s take on Carnacki, the ‘Ghost Finder.’

It’s difficult to assess his portrayal in terms of how faithful it is to the original source as Hodgson writes the character as a cipher, little more than a vehicle for the stories he seeks to tell. However, taken on its own terms it’s certainly an interesting performance, emphasising an almost diffident introspection which often appears otherworldly. He also exhibits a certain melancholy which furnishes the drama with its emotional heart. If there is a complaint to be made, it’s that his presence is perhaps insufficient to succeed as a leading man. Yet I suspect that is more of a problem if, through experience of the original stories, you are predisposed to regard Carnacki as a serial protagonist as opposed to the isolated context of this adaptation.

Ultimately though you have to ask whether ‘The Horse of the Invisible’ was really the best Carnacki story to adapt. From a certain perspective, it is possible to see the logic. It certainly shows off Hodgson’s pseudo-scientific embellishments to full effect, with psychic photography, poltergeist phenomena and even Carnacki’s infamous electrical pentacle, whilst the denouement presents an interesting twist. Unfortunately, however, when translated to the visual medium there is something unavoidably Pythonesque about a phantom horse. The director achieves a couple of effective shots with very limited resources but he is fighting a losing battle. The ideas of the story do not simply fail to translate to screen, the very operation of translation actively undermines them.

Thus ‘The Horse of the Invisible’ is conspicuously lacking in the atmosphere of dread essential to good supernatural television. It might be argued that we cannot expect an adaptation from 1971 to truly achieve this anyway but some of the best Ghost Stories for Christmas date from the same period. The programme’s principle excuse is that in the context of the series the focus was on the detection methods of Carnacki rather than the paranormal phenomena per se and it this respect it does perhaps succeed. However, it is impossible not to feel that a more potent drama could’ve been manufactured had they but chosen the story more carefully and as a consequence, this stands merely as an interesting curio rather than a substantial addition to the canon.

Originally transmitted on 18th October 1971
Produced by Thames Television

 

Tags: , , , ,